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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country located in Southwestern Europe, on the Iberian Peninsula. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south and by Spain to the north and east. The Atlantic archipielagos of the Azores and Madeira are Portuguese territory as well. The country is named after its second largest city, Porto, whose Latin name was Portus Cale.

The land within the borders of the current Portuguese Republic has been continuously settled since prehistoric times. After a period of Roman rule followed by Visigothic and Suebian domination, in the 8th century most of the Iberian Peninsula was conquered by Moorish invaders professing Islam, who were later expelled by the Knights Templar.
During the Christian Reconquista, Portugal established itself as an independent kingdom from Galicia in 1139, claiming to be the oldest European nation-state. In the 15th and 16th centuries, as the result of pioneering the Age of Discovery, Portugal expanded western influence and established the first global empire, becoming one of the world’s major economic, political and military powers. Además, the Portuguese Empire was the longest-lived of the modern European colonial empires, spanning almost 600 años, from the capture of Ceuta in 1415 to the handover of Macau in 1999 and granting of sovereignty to East Timor in 2002. The empire spread throughout a vast number of territories that are now part of 53 different sovereign states.
Sin embargo, the country’s international status was greatly reduced during the 19th century, especially following the Independence of Brazil, its largest colony. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, itself being superseded by the “Estado Novo” authoritarian regime. Se restableció la democracia después de la guerra Colonial portuguesa y la revolución de los claveles en 1974.
Portugal es un país desarrollado con un índice de desarrollo humano muy alto, del mundo 19-mayor calidad de vida como de 2005. Es uno de los países del mundo más globalizado y pacífica: miembro de la Unión Europea y las Naciones Unidas, y miembro fundador de la Unión Latina, la organización de Estados Iberoamericanos, OCDE, OTAN, la comunidad de países de lengua portuguesa, la zona del euro y el acuerdo de Schengen.


La dieta de la grapa es uno de los peces, carne, frutas y verduras. Aunque abundan las aguas de Portugal con pescado fresco, secado, bacalao salado, conocido como 'bacalhau', a menudo importados, se considera el plato nacional. En algunos países, en la época navideña, la gente come pavo, in Portugal people eat boiled ‘bacalhau’, with olive oil, potatoes, grain and cabbages. In many areas, meat is seldom eaten, although the Alentejo region is known for its pork and Trás-os Montes for cured meats. Breads and sweets – the latter a legacy of Moorish occupation – take a variety of forms, with many regional specialities. Wine is the ubiquitous table beverage.

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